Cardiac Arrhythmias

The heart’s job is to pump blood consistently through the body.  In the case of an abnormal heart rhythm, called an arrhythmia, it cannot pump as well.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common abnormal heart rhythm affecting 33 million people worldwide.

Symptoms of AF include palpitations, fatigue, shortness of breath, difficulty exercising, anxiety, chest pain and dizziness.

Because blood can become stagnant in the heart with AF, patients with this condition are at increased risk of stroke.

AF can be treated with medications that normalize the heart rate and rhythm, or with catheter ablation which uses various forms of electrosurgical energy to restore the normal heart rhythm.


Educational Resources for Electrophysiologists



PEF Basics – The Science / Focused On Pulsed Electric Field Technology

  • Charging Cells
  • Cell Injury & Death
  • Evolution of PEF Myocardial Injury
  • Tissue Specific Responses

Presented by Samuel J. Asirvatham, M.D.


Applying PEF – The Execution / Focused On Pulsed Electric Field Technology

  • Basics on Titrating Treatment Effect by Increasing Efield, or Changing Effective Lethal Threshold
  • Waveform Characteristics
  • Monophasic vs. Biphasic
  • Adjusting the “Knobs” to Optimize Dose
  • Monopolar vs. Bipolar
  • Single-shot vs. Focal

Presented by Atul Verma, M.D.


Advanced PEF – The Nuances / Focused On Pulsed Electric Field Technology

  • The Evidence for Cardiac Sync
  • Microbubbles
  • Tissue Recovery
  • Does Contact Matter?
  • Tissue Planes: The Unique Feature of PEF

Presented by Thomas Deneke, M.D., PhD


PEF Ablation – First 100 Cases with Focal PEF-Enabled Catheter

A panel discussion focused on lessons learned from the first 100 cases with focal 

PEF-enabled catheters. Presented by lead primary investigators in the SPACE-AF 

and ECLIPSE-AF studies: Atul Verma, M.D., Ante Anić, M.D., and Johan Vijgen, M.D.

The webinars posted to this web page present information pertaining to various technologies and types of energy that form a part of the broad science of pulsed electric fields. Various types of pulsed electric field energy are discussed, one example being irreversible electroporation, and it is understood that the term “irreversible electroporation” should not be conflated with the terms “pulsed electric fields” or “pulsed electric field energy” when used in these posted webinars. Therefore, information presented in the webinars may not be applicable to all technologies, and some technologies may utilize new forms of pulsed electric field energy having characteristics and attributes that are currently evolving. By presenting these webinars on its web page, Galvanize Therapeutics and its business unit Galaxy Medical are not endorsing or adopting the use of any one term over the other as Galvanize Therapeutics/Galaxy Medical recognizes that one term alone is not sufficient to define the nature of any particular pulsed electric field energy.